Millennium Declaration – obiettivi generali   1 comment

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Goals and Targets (from the Millennium Declaration) Indicators for monitoring progress

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

Target 1: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day

1. Proportion of population below $1 (PPP) per daya

2. Poverty gap ratio [incidence x depth of poverty]

3. Share of poorest quintile in national consumption

Target 2: Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger

4. Prevalence of underweight children under-five years of age

5. Proportion of population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption

Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education

Target 3: Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike,

will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling

6. Net enrolment ratio in primary education

7. Proportion of pupils starting grade 1 who reach grade 5b

8. Literacy rate of 15-24 year-olds

Goal 3: Promote gender equality and empower women

Target 4: Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education,

preferably by 2005, and in all levels of education no later than 2015

9. Ratios of girls to boys in primary, secondary and tertiary education

10. Ratio of literate women to men, 15-24 years old

11. Share of women in wage employment in the non-agricultural sector

12. Proportion of seats held by women in national parliament

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

Target 5: Reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate

13. Under-five mortality rate

14. Infant mortality rate

15. Proportion of 1 year-old children immunised against measles

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

Target 6: Reduce by three-quarters, between 1990 and 2015, the maternal mortality ratio

16. Maternal mortality ratio

17. Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel

Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases

Target 7: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS

18. HIV prevalence among pregnant women aged 15-24 years

19. Condom use rate of the contraceptive prevalence ratec

19a. Condom use at last high-risk sex

19b. Percentage of population aged 15-24 years with comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV/AIDSd

19c. Contraceptive prevalence rate

20. Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of nonorphans aged 10-14 years

Target 8: Have halted by 2015 and begun to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases

21. Prevalence and death rates associated with malaria

22. Proportion of population in malaria-risk areas using effective malaria prevention and treatment measurese

23. Prevalence and death rates associated with tuberculosis

24. Proportion of tuberculosis cases detected and cured under directly observed treatment short course DOTS (Internationally recommended TB control strategy)

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability

Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environmental resources

25. Proportion of land area covered by forest

26. Ratio of area protected to maintain biological diversity to surface area

27. Energy use (kg oil equivalent) per $1 GDP (PPP)

28. Carbon dioxide emissions per capita and consumption of ozonedepleting CFCs (ODP tons)

29. Proportion of population using solid fuels

Target 10: Halve, by 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation

30. Proportion of population with sustainable access to an improved water source, urban and rural

31. Proportion of population with access to improved sanitation, urban and rural

Target 11: By 2020, to have achieved a significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers

32. Proportion of households with access to secure tenure

Goal 8: Develop a global partnership for development
Target 12: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, nondiscriminatory trading and financial system
Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally
Target 13: Address the special needs of the least developed countries Includes: tariff and quota free access for the least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor
countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction
Target 14: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the
outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)
Target 15: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term Some of the indicators listed below are monitored separately for the least
developed countries (LDCs), Africa, landlocked developing countries and small island developing States.
Official development assistance (ODA)
33. Net ODA, total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors’ gross national income
34. Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
35. Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
36. ODA received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national incomes
37. ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes Market access
38. Proportion of total developed country imports (by value and excluding arms) from developing countries and least developed countries, admitted free of duty
39. Average tariffs imposed by developed countries on agricultural products and textiles and clothing from developing countries
40. Agricultural support estimate for OECD countries as a percentage of their gross domestic product
41. Proportion of ODA provided to help build trade capacity
Debt sustainability
42. Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)
43. Debt relief committed under HIPC Initiative
44. Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
Target 16: In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth
45. Unemployment rate of young people aged 15-24 years, each sex and totalf
Target 17: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
46. Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
Target 18: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
47. Telephone lines and cellular subscribers per 100 population
48. Personal computers in use per 100 population
Internet users per 100 population

The Millennium Development Goals and targets come from the Millennium Declaration, signed by 189 countries, including 147 heads of State and Government, in September 2000 (http://www.un.org/millennium/declaration/ares552e.htm). The goals and targets are interrelated and should be seen as a whole. They represent a partnership between the developed countries and the developing countries “to create an environment – at the national and global levels alike – which is conducive to development and the elimination of poverty”.
Note: Goals, targets and indicators effective 8 September 2003.
a For monitoring country poverty trends, indicators based on national poverty lines should be used, where available.
b An alternative indicator under development is “primary completion rate”.
c Amongst contraceptive methods, only condoms are effective in preventing HIV transmission. Since the condom use rate is only measured among women in union, it is supplemented by an indicator on condom use in high-risk situations (indicator 19a) and an indicator on HIV/AIDS knowledge (indicator 19b). Indicator 19c (contraceptive prevalence rate) is also useful in tracking progress in other health, gender and poverty goals.
d This indicator is defined as the percentage of population aged 15-24 who correctly identify the two major ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV (using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner), who reject the two most common local misconceptions about HIV transmission, and who know that a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. However, since there are currently not a sufficient number of surveys to be able to calculate the indicator as defined above,
UNICEF, in collaboration with UNAIDS and WHO, produced two proxy indicators that represent two components of the actual indicator. They are the following: a) percentage of women and men 15-24 who know that a person can protect herself/herself from HIV infection by “consistent use of condom”; b) percentage of women and men 15-24 who know a healthy-looking person can transmit HIV. e Prevention to be measured by the percentage of children under 5 sleeping under insecticide- treated bednets; treatment to be measured by percentage of children under 5 who are appropriately treated.
f An improved measure of the target for future years is under development by the International Labour Organization.

pubblicato gennaio 18, 2008 da antennaeurope

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